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About Nepal

About Nepal

Nepal is a small country surrounded by the great nations of China and India; its special situation has a customary result a strange mixture and architecture. The country is 885 km in length and 241 km in its maximum width, and in that short distance it rises from the 70 meters on the level of the sea to almost the 8,900 meters of the Everest, the highest mountain of the planet. All it turns Nepal in one of the tourist destinies of our days.

Nepal is famous for following varieties; rich natural beauties and value, a land of legend, birth place of Buddha, monasteries, Stupas, temples, giant Mountain, festivals, cultures, medieval villages, variety of people, towns, artisan and art, traditional foods… and with some of the best Rivers of the world.

Nepal can be divided in three great areas: the low territories of the Terai, valley of Kathmandu and the Himalayas.

The country offers one of the greater concentrations of natural reserves of the world, from the Rara National Park, to the west, to the Sagarmatha National Park, in the east, passing by numerous parks in the south.

The best thing of low territories of the Terai is their three natural parks Royal Bardia, Royal Chitwan and Tiger Tops, where always can be seen the tiger of Bengal and Asiatic single horned rhino.

The center of the country is made up of valleys among one of them is the spectacular valley of Kathmandu, its capital, located almost in the center of the country. It is very interesting to cross her populated area and to enter a culture so different from the western one.

The Himalayas run throughout the northern border. Eight of the fourteen tops of the 8,000 meters of the world are here. The name of the Everest, Kanchanjunga or Annapurna, attracts and captivates the mountain lovers of the worldwide.

Nepal opens its borders to the tourism only in 1951 but until 1964 only visited the country by expert mountaineers and explorers. In our days it receives more of trekkers for always, businessmen, lovers of the fleeting nature and visitors of two or three days. The country opening to any type of tourism has become synonym of trekking.

Nepal in a Brief

Administrative and physical division: The country is divided administratively into five development regions, 14 Zones and 75 districts. Ecologically it can be divided into three ecological regions namely, Mountain, Hill and Tarai.
Climate: Maximum temperature of – 3.0º C was recorded in Jiri in 1995 among the listed stations. In Kathmandu the Maximum temperature range between 18ºC to 33ºC and the minimum temperature range between – 2º C to 20o C.
Fiscal year: Nepalese fiscal year starts in Mid June to Mid July.
Location: Nepal borders with the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China in the North and India in the East, South, and West respectively.
Area: 147,181 sq. Kilometers (56,827 sq miles)
Altitude: Varies from 70 meters to 8848 meters.
Capital: Kathmandu
Population: 27 million (with 2.1% growth rate)
Language: Nepali is the national language of Nepal. Educated people understand and speak
English as well (there are 63 tribal languages).
Major religions: Hinduism, Buddhism
Time: Nepal Time is 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of GMT and 15 minutes ahead of Indian standard time.

Nepal has a long glorious history. Its civilization can be traced back to thousands of years before the birth of Christ. A Hindu-Buddhist culture flourished in the Kathmandu valley by the 4th century A.D. In the Middle Age many small principalities were established. The Gurkhas, one of these, became dominant in 1768. In 1816, after a war with the British, Nepal adopted a policy of seclusion from foreign contacts. Internal power struggles led in 1846 to the dominance of the Rana family, which controlled the country until 1951. Under the Ranas, Nepal was isolated from foreign influence, and there was little economic modernization. Nepal was granted independence in 1951 and a limited constitutional monarchy was established. After a brief period of democracy (1959-60), political activity was banned. A form of party less government, the Panchayati System, was set up (1962), with executive power resting in the king. This system was narrowly approved (1980) in a national referendum. In 1990 protests led to the abolition of the Panchayati System and the reestablishment of democracy and a constitutional monarchy. the Maoist insurgency started from on 13 February 1996 and the country and people went through a very difficult time.

The Nepalese royal massacre occurred on Friday, June 1, 2001, at the Narayanhity Royal Palace. Prince Dipendra was immediately proclaimed King while in a coma, but was declared died on June 4, 2001, after a three-day reign. Gyanendra, the younger brother of King Birendra, was appointed regent for the three days, then ascended the throne after King Dipendra’s death. In April 2005 seven political parties summoned for a nationwide demonstration against the direct rule of King Gyanendra (reigned 4 June 2001 – 28 May 2008), which ended in 19 days of serious classes (6-24 April) and resulted the restoration of the democracy.

In February 2005, King Gyanendra took complete control of the government, dismissing the elected parliament. Following opposition to his direct rule he was forced to return power to parliament in April 2006, which in turn reduced the king’s status to that of a ceremonial monarch. He continued as such until 28 May 2008, A Constituent Assembly election was held on April 10, 2008. On May 28, 2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic and Royal Control was peacefully deposed and Nepal became a federal republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. Nepal today has a President as Head of State and a Prime Minister heading the Government.

The country is in process of drafting Federal Republic Constitution with a time limit within the 28 May 2010 but this main agenda of the new Constitution is slowly nearing toward the uncertainty due to political problems among the political parties and leaders of Nepal.

Since Nepal opened its borders in the 1950s, it has become one of the favourite destinations of many Western trekkers and climbers. Fearing the political situation (Maoist insurgency) most of the tourist preferred other destinations. From 2005 the situation came back to normal and the tourist loving to wonder in magical medieval villages, hills and mountains are back to Nepal. Nepal is one of the richest countries for the scenic wonders and ethnic plurality. Nepal is the home of the highest mountains of the world. Given the variation in altitude (from 70 Metres to the 8,848 Metres of Everest), its fauna and flora are incredibly rich. Inhabited by Hindus, Buddhists and a variety of ethnic groups, the country enjoys a wealth of cultural life including art, architecture and handicrafts that can satisfy all tastes.